my parents just moved to a brand-new house and they have a lot of works and they have a nice 24 hoof chiefly clear wall up their finished basement so we thought we’d build a bookcase to go along that wall now usually when you build a bookcase you build a box and you put shelves in it and then if you want to make it bigger you basically build more caskets and complete those with shelves but what happens when you do that is between each casket you be brought to an end with two beds of wood or in this case plywood because we were going to start so many shelves I wanted to figure out a method to not double up the plywood between the seam between each carton the expect I came up with was to build the vertical slouse between each prepare of shelves and not construct the box that croaks around the shelves so I would change the modular of the bookcases and what this would impart us would be a single expanse of plywood between each plan of shelves I figured out that this was going to take us nine membranes of plywood to do five shelves high at 24 hoofs wide with 12 daytimes of shelves I get prefinished birch plywood as this would compile the process at the end got a lot quicker because we wouldn’t have to finish the bookshelves and I carried everything into the shop she isn’t too bad but I did settle the expanses down in a target where they could start the process easier and not protrude them over in a corner somewhere where they then have to get moved again to get going on the shelves every article of wood in the shelves going to get 10 and 3/4 inches so those the shelves and then the vertical sections and the top and the bottom would be that width so what I needed to do is just chipped all the sheets to that width so it was a lot of cutting divests and because it’s a little bit little than a foot I ceased up with a little of scrap on each expanse which I’ll use last-minute for the cornerstone the first part to make are the vertical regions as we’re going to drill holes the adjustable shelf pegs to go in now as my mummy had been pestering me about getting these shelves done I had her drill all the holes and that was just a little bit less than a thousand it’s like nine hundred and something pits which is required to be taught for all of the Shelf pigs so I evidenced her how to use the drill press and how to follow a structure and she did a really great job drilling all the holes all right how deep do you clear them and how are we going to make sure they’re absolutely even this acces they need to be accurate this method doesn’t matter so much we made a stick with punctures in it “youre using” as a template and then precisely tag it on that would be easier either grocery or use it to drill right through mm I don’t want to use one of the following options assume you use one of these as a template but then that templates gonna do no mold they’re gonna get bigger and bigger in where do you have it something else is long maybe an arrow thing so we made a template for the holes and then she could clamp that to each piece and then really returning the instruct chip down into each hole along the template and instruct the holes that needed to be drilled and it cultivated really well we didn’t screw up any of them it took her 2 day to to instruct all the holes and it really helped with the project so as she did that I chipped cases of maple to make an edge band for the breast face of the plywood articles so that we are able cover up the the slashed perimeter of the plywood with a little strip of maple and I made a really thin propagandize deposit compile those actually thin strips I time glued them on and then employed a bolt nailer to hold them in place while the cement dried and those pas quite fast it’s sort of good to do the margining first before I start certainly cutting so that as I cut the pieces I’m chipping both the plywood and the edge to length so that I don’t have to try and fit the leading edge later to the length of the plywood formerly it’s trimmed then the next thing to do was the top and sole fragments and they’re going to be approximately two feet wide what she’ll then stimulate each rack Bay two feet wide minus the extent of the plywood so I’d set up a fence on the radial appendage received which would act as a zero permission fencing so that I wouldn’t get any blowout on the back of a dado that I wanted to put in the center of each of the top and bottom segments which like I’ve said before it’s not so much for backbone but it would help the vertical bit to moor right in the center we’re not so much right in the center but precisely in the same place on each top and underside section so that my my Bay’s on the shelves would all be exactly the same width so that the shelves would all be interchangeable and the top of the entire assembly I wanted to attach with pocket fuckings so that the top would be held together as one piece propping all the the vertical patches together and then I could introduce the top and tush on and just some glue and then some Brad hammers and I included two fucks as well so I originated these I determined segments that would be the structure for the bookshelves I sanded the front edge then before those could go in place I has make a base for all of this to sit on so I use the little leftover slouse from the plywood to realize the base it’s mostly two long divests with dedos cut in them and then some shorter pieces to hold those together so it’s sort of sort of making a ladder but it makes a formulate that then the bookcases can sit on and it’s going in a daylit vault I guess you’d call it so there’s a entrance to the outside at a floor tier so if it ever fills it shouldn’t overflow more than a few inches so it’ll be nice to have all the books up off the floor simply a little then we can bring the basi in I became the first two at 8 feet and we can lay those out and then from there I could do the third largest one formerly I knew what length to start that based on how they was sitting in the basement and then the horizontal organization could could come in and I set that so I did the pocket bolt on the top and I bolt the bottom down to the base and I use pocket screwings along the top and the bottom to screw a arrangement into the studs of the wall so that so the believe is that if this ever had to get made apart I could do that without having to demo it I could just undo all the clamps then once I had all of the middle-of-the-road areas done I could do that to aspiration and the horizontal parts because of one heating duct and a couple of outlets and switchings there was really one specific discern where it all fit and directed so that the two culminates various kinds of made up the difference so I had to install the center then construct the two points to to a custom span because the inner vertical bits will be supported by the shelves the end one doesn’t have that because it only has shelves on one side so I wanted to add a piece that would help stiffen that in and what that objective up being I realise is I could do that into a little shelf for smaller things it’s not just a piece of design stuck on the end it’s actually two rafters ranging vertically with shelves in between then it was time to make all the shelves and they all proceed in and it was time to start putting things on the shelves and first went on the knickknacks and then the books went on and it actually resolved up ogling a lot better I thought it was going to it looks a lot like a like a library so it should be really useful and my mothers truly seemed to like it so that’s good you you you thank you for having watching

CSULB Design – Following the Rabbit Hole

I speak here does anyone hear me no okay okay how’s it going everyone thanks for being here thank you for the introduction Wesley and yes my name is Cindy and as I was getting together all my ideas for the talk I really realized that the variety of experiences I’ve had was kind of like a series of rabbit-hole how I went from behavioral therapy and psychology to stand in front of you delivering a design lecture so we’re gonna play into the theme of following the rabbit hole and really what that looked like for me and my undergrad career was asking a series of questions I always really liked asking why and it’s incredible when you actually get to that level with just like you ever have a conversation with someone and you’re just like oh why is that and then they give you a response and then you go oh why is that and you end up getting a series of pattern out of that answer to really understand what the motivation is so German der grad I studied human behavior and social influence and I asked a lot of these questions and it seems kind of like a random conglomerate and how that’s all together but I asked you know does birth order affect temperament and that’s basically the idea of you were the first born child middle born child youngest child how does that affect your decision-making process how are your coping mechanisms how does that lead into the decisions that you have later on in life another fun one and I’ll go into this deeper if we have time at the end our facial expressions innate or socially learned now we’re very social beings and we’re constantly gathering information from our environment to kind of communicate what it is that we mean so that’s a really fun one that’s been debated over and over there’s still is no finite answer I should add and then the last one that I really want to go into deeply with you guys is how do humans conceptualize abstract and motions so playing on this idea of love right when we think about love everybody has a different definition for what that looks like I feel like right now there’s a good colloquial going around of love language so everyone communicates what love means to whoever it is they’re trying to talk to you whether it’s through gifting or acts of kindness or physical affection there’s different ways that we express how we can understand that emotion so most of what we do is our highest most sophisticated thoughts are actually rooted in a lot of physical bodily functions and so there’s this idea called embody metaphors where it’s basically like idioms and sayings that basically try to capture this abstract idea where we can step into it so it takes something that is so vast and hard to define and makes it more tangible so that we can empathize with it so when you think about love there’s all these different things that come up two peas in a pod I’m head-over-heels in love with this person we’re going our separate ways right they’re all very physically oriented things in which you can see your body set in and do and so it conveys this idea especially for going separate ways you know two people were together and Olson they’re not and they’re not going in the straight path anymore they’re going separate and it takes this thing that you know you may not exactly understand what it is they’re going through specifically but the idea is so strong because it’s a physical phenomenon and so what happens is abstract emotions end up being like symptoms so you have something like the common cold one person can have sniffling and sneezes and another person may have coughing and a sore throat but you all fit under this umbrella of the common cold right it’s the same diagnosis and that’s what happens with emotions as well same thing with anger sadness with happiness especially going back to anger you know we have different ways of expressing that as well you can see people who physically exert kind of like this cathartic release or you have people who just keep to themselves and really internalized so we all process these things in different ways but for us to have that mutual understanding we can communicate it through embodied metaphors so I was talking about this with my housemate the time and I was like yeah it’s crazy you know love is it’s a four-letter word it’s so simple but I loved watching the sunset I love my mom I love my cat and those are all very different ideas of what love may mean but it communicates this level of passion right like I really really care about all those things I just listed so she was like well you know love is just one word but seven words for love and I was like woah you mean to tell me that this whole time I think we were probably in our early 20s at this point you’ve had love plus seven other ways to categorize all the different ways you can understand what it is you’re feeling so then it posed this question do when we go back a little bit I’ll show you all the examples so the first one is eros romantic passionate love and that’s something you probably would feel with a romantic partner there’s fewer there’s intimate authentic friendship ludos it’s playful flirty Suslov stork unconditional familiar love right that’s what I would use talk with my mom and flusha self love which is a term that’s I think an emerging more an hour colloquial in this generation right this idea of self love we can instantly think about okay that’s something that I do for myself to recharge whether it’s reading or taking a walks or whatever it is there’s a more well-defined concept and if you take self out of it it’s pretty abstract but then you add the self in there and suddenly it communicates this very clear method in which you’re going to communicate that love committed compassionate love is pragma and then agape is empathetic Universal love so seven different buckets for this very very big umbrella emotion right so it made me wonder if she grew up with each of these buckets right so categorized one thing as an English speaker that I know of she’s seven different options so when she’s going through each of experiences surety has that predisposition of options to say oh you know what I’m feeling this and so I started to ask do people with multiple language skills have higher emotional intelligence if you speak more than one language and there’s different ways for you to express that feeling does that mean that you you know have a better idea than somebody who has less of those options so it turns out that’s some very very smart people have already pondered this phenomenon and they call it linguistic determinism so this idea is basically what language you predominantly speak has huge effects on how you shape the concepts that you experience in the world so that makes a lot of sense right it’s kind of like this idea of trying to translate poetry it never quite gets there or listening to music that’s been translated to or even like dubbed movies right something’s always a little bit off but does it really get across so it’s really important that this at the crux of language is how we experience things around us and when it comes down to design there’s some really really important things that people should have thought about when it comes to language so these are some examples of ad campaigns that have failed horribly because they’ve got lost in translation I don’t know if you’re familiar which HSBC they basically were the number-one drug smuggling bank for the cartel you should look it up if you don’t know anything about that there’s a really good dirty money episode on it it’s super interesting so it’s a good grounds for rebranding right and they ended up translating to do nothing which is terrible and similarly with Pepsi and KFC the Chinese translation doesn’t really quite get there right so you get a lot of things that are lost and you’re losing the ability to capture your target market if you were to understand that you know language comes down to the key communication of whatever it is you’re running I think that they would have approached it a lot differently so after my undergrad I like seeing people’s reactions because I didn’t put any context to this but I’ll get into so after my undergrad I was asking a series of questions you know what it is that I want to research next and I ended up going to a fungus night at the Academy of Sciences in San Francisco so they had all these really wonderful experts all over the fungi world you know people growing just really insane mushrooms and using it to cure cancer and that uh so there’s this woman named Jeremy Lee who runs a company called Co yo and it’s a startup company that’s based in Mountain View and what you’re looking at is their product which is a cotton burial shroud so when you die you can get wrapped in the shroud and it’s embedded with mushroom spores and it will eventually decompose your body and your bones and recycle all those nutrients back into the living organisms around you pretty far out everyone it’s like quiet like whoa what is that yeah it is a really really revolutionary product and what’s interesting is there’s not a lot of product development in the funeral business it’s just it’s a monopoly you know you’re not really getting people who are competing with the next funeral home saying hey we have better deals and it’s such a sensitive topic especially in Western culture so topics of taboo don’t often get that target market addressed and so what I did for this company is I did a lot of psychographic of research so I conducted a series of interviews of people who were already participants I’m using the shroud whether it was for humans or for pets and then I investigated what the phenomenon was in the funeral home business what it was like to be a funeral home owner and to provide the products that people select so what I found is it’s a very tricky thing to tackle you know the target market here is people who are dead but those aren’t the people making the decision for what they’re going to be buried in and a lot of times you really have it written in your will or maybe based on religion or a tradition there’s something that’s already preset so it’s kind of hard to engage in a target market and try to get them to convert to using a new product especially something that needs a lot of explanation and challenges really old ideologies so that was really interesting that was kind of just like a fun fact so after I did that I ended up going to be careful therapy I got my license and applied behavioral therapy in the shorthand for that as a BA and the foundation of that form of therapy is really to understand what is the function of our behavior every behavior is trying to communicate something so if we’re able to identify what that is you can address the need a lot sooner and this is something that as designers is kind of like the first stage of ideation right you’re trying to serve a need to a very specific group of people and you have to understand and really empathize with what that looks like so what I wanted was that humans are really malleable beings across the cognitive scale but what I did was I did one-on-one therapy specifically with clients on the autism spectrum in between the ages of 3 and 15 typically and whenever we found a behavior that was maladaptive or disruptive we had to design programs to get them to re learn how to ask for that behavior so the four functions of behavior under ABA the first one is sensory so this is if you’re doing something because it really just feels good to do if you’ve ever gone to the market and just like stuck your hand in a bag of beans or digging your toes in the sand you’re just doing it because it physically feels good to do the second one is escape so if you are in a really awkward situation someone’s making you feel comfortable you want to remove yourself from that right simply that’s undesired I’m gonna leave attention literally the reason why babies cry they don’t know any words yet and they’re just crying because they need something they need your attention to come and dress it and the last one is access to tangibles and my favorite example of this is like the kid that’s throw a tantrum in the chocolate aisle because they’re paired just said no I’m not gonna buy you a chocolate bar so that is pretty much how ABA has bucketed the reasons why we do things okay so I’m gonna take a pause there because a lot of people understand that humans are valuable beings we’re constantly influenced on a daily scale especially now with how fast technology is accelerating and we’re susceptible to a lot of outside influence and so it’s really gotten our ways of consumerism to be faster and faster there’s overproduction over consumption and a great deal of waste to deal with so I’m pretty sure a lot of you are familiar with those two ideas right and those are the things that are driving this accelerated number of acquiring 64 to 68 new pieces of clothing a year half of which are all worn just three times or less which creates an immense amount of waste and that 80 pounds of clothing sorry 18 tons of clothing every three days that ends up going to the global south or then their debt they’re meant to deal with our waste and they go into resale market after resale markets but the truth of the matter is we’re creating things that don’t last that are trendy so they inherently can’t last much longer that perceived obsolescence and they end up going to the landfill but they go overseas somewhere else where we can’t see and that’s kind of the problem of the cycle is that this kind of information is not apparent in that materials economy it’s drawn out like a linear path when really it should be something that is cyclical so I would really recommend watching that video in your spare time it’s a really good use of your time and she goes through a number of ways where you can actually intercept like so if you just bought one used item this year instead of a new one it would save six pounds of co2 emissions which is equivalent to removing half a million cards off the road for a year that’s pretty significant so there’s two ways that I can see us participating in it and oftentimes I get stuck in the struggle of the burden of knowledge right it’s a lot to take on it feels like it’s a system that has been in tradition for so long where are we supposed to make them so from the bottom up the number-one rule is just to five less slow down and really consider the things that you are consuming ask yourself is this something that I can see myself having for five years for ten years and then of course shopping secondhand and that doesn’t mean you know just with your clothing you can buy a lot of the other hard goods that you need in your daily life and through many other resources I’m happy to share all of them and then talking about this kind of stuff with people around you and asking people why do you choose to shop the way you do it starts really good conversation then you can keep asking what and the second is from the top down which the most effective way I see it is legislation reform and we all know that politics is a really long hard game so the part that we as designers can play into it is systems reform how do we make things differently how do we really understand what it is we’re putting out into the world now the woman that I worked for eschewed Young Burton who started a plot she had an entire career in industrial design before starting this brand and the first thing she said to me upon me getting hired was you know I never actually really understood what was happening with my products I would make the design I’d send it out and I’d get it back and that was all I really knew and that I never cared to ask and so there’s many points of intervention here and I really like what any Leonard says about seeing all the connections to the big picture and the rest of this presentation is really gonna focus on how we can all work together to unify these systems instead of having them broken down in these linear chunks how do we get it to all revolve and work with each other where one person’s waste becomes another person’s resource so is anyone familiar with how garment is made raise your hand if you have an idea what what’s your opinion are like what how do you think clothing is made yeah wow that was a really really nice response I was more than I was expecting so yeah you actually got it pretty spot-on but there’s all these little factors that go into how and how many it’s the garment industry makes so we start with a pattern a pattern is basically the blueprint for all the components that go into a piece of clothing so if I were to take my coat and chop this little off and then cut it in half and lay it flat that would be a pattern so all those pieces laid out on a piece of paper is called the marker and the mercury is used as a stencil to guide the cutting process and the marker has all these pattern pieces laid out flat and then it’s laid on top of piles of fabric so that it can all be cut out at the same time so this is a CAD of what a garment industry pattern marker might look like you can see that it’s all separated by sizes based on the colors so extra small all the way to extra large and the reason why it’s beneficial for it to be separated like this is so you can clearly see all the corresponding components that go into a certain size now if you looked at this corner right here the program tells you how much of that fabric is actually utilized so that means out of this entire surface area that you see all the colored pieces only make up 61% of what you see all the negative space around it that’s white is 38% that’s all the stuff that’s going to landfill so that’s almost that’s 40% 40% is pretty close to 50% so what that’s like half of the fabric that’s just getting discarded through this process now a lot of people ask well can’t you puzzle it differently to make it more efficiently and you can’t this is what it would look like if you maximize your surface area now it doesn’t say it down here but this is probably close around 10% maybe less than 10% waste which is really good 10% is a really good number to aim for that is significantly lower than average waste however you see all the pattern workers now are scattered the sizes like you see large some over here some over there and it makes it really hard to actually account for how many pieces you’re going to get if you print out this marker and you cut out all these pieces you’re going to get an equal ratio across all the sizes right the reason why most industries separated by sizing is because you’re doing changes right medium might be a more popular size and extra large or extra small so you’re gonna pile more sizes on to this production skew rather than the ones at the Umbrella edge so that makes it really difficult for people because when you do it like this even when you’re conserving fabric you can’t just say okay I’m gonna cut more of the meeting pieces because the fabric is going across the whole entire sheet so there’s no way to really compartmentalize your sizes and that’s why this ends up being the industry standard now as wesley mentioned earlier I work for a company right now called a plot we’re located in San Francisco were very lucky to be across the street from the factory where we produce at which we have a great intimate relationship that we foster to kind of change this pattern system so we make zero waste bags for culinary for wine for bread and produce as well as garden this is a little bit of a product run through so this is the plot hope it’s meant to carry your Bulls your dishes horizontally going to picnics or potlucks we have a line of zero waste pan covers and dish covers to eliminate single-use saran wrap and foil we make wine carriers for a single bottle double bottle bread and storage bags for the same reason as the covers but actually storing your bread and produce in organic cotton preserves them for a lot longer it lets the vegetables breathe while absorbing the moisture that oftentimes is what makes it well faster especially for leafy greens or mushrooms this is our garden collection and all the denim that you see we actually sourced from local surplus rolls so what happens is a company like Levi’s for example they go through a production under five thousand pieces now at the very end they have 40 rolls of fabric for 40 yards of fabric left which sounds like a lot but in the scale of 5000 pieces you actually can’t make anything that you’re actually going to sell so those leftover rolls end up going to trash and we rescue a lot of that back and extend their product lifecycle and this is our flower tote which actually is the first product that launched the brand shoe is actually gifting flowers to a friend and when she got the bouquet back it was wrapped in this plastic cellophane she thought this is terrible contrast to honoring something that comes from the planet so she ended up going home and drafting this up and shortly after that within a few hours she had the entire product line and this happened recently which was cool actually uh I showed my boyfriend this and he was just like who is that I’m not gonna explain if you don’t know so as makers we understand that we have a choice right and our choice here is to really take responsibility for the part that we play in pre-consumer waste if we have a way to manage the waste that we create then that is our ultimate goal and how we achieve this is by using origami principles I’m using golden ratios and geometry what that means it’s basically taking one sheet much like you do a piece of paper and building folds through volume and the golden ratios plays into it because when you try to do a zero-waste marker it’s kind of like Tetris thing everything together and it works best when all those rectangle dimensions are ratio to one another one second okay so this piece that I’m holding up makes this product this product and this product so we’re able to take one rectangle and fold it into three different things to maximize the use of just one simple marker so like I mentioned before the key is in the marker and this is a photo of what our marker looks like my day-to-day job as an operations manager here is to be in the factories and work really closely with the production line so and that starts mostly in the CAD stage of the marker now you may think you have rectangles and squares why does it take so much time well it’s because like I mentioned earlier the demand is always changing so based on how many units we want to yield you always have to shift what goes on the piece of paper and so you really it’s a very complicated process to explain but I think the visuals are really help this is an example of what our CAD marker looks like it’s five rectangles I can show you a bunch of other ones so this is for the redline but you get the point right it’s all right angles and straight edges that line up and that’s the only way you can get virtually close to zero because you have things that totally match with clothing it’s really hard because it’s organic shapes right we have curves butts elbows aren’t armpits so it’s nearly impossible to really use this method when it comes to clothing unfortunately so I’ll give it a second it’s all over the place so this is basically what the process of laying down fabric looks like you start with pretty much like a 20 foot long table and this roll is on one cylinder that goes back and forth and back and forth and each of those layers of fabric we lay down is called a ply and every time the fabric comes back to fold we call that the return so the reason why we do so much work a pan in the marker is that you’ll always yield some kind of waste in those returns so again this is the stack right here the more markers you have the more returns you’ll have right if you have three different pieces now all of a sudden you have 6 – per piece so what we do is we try to fit everything on one big long marker so that there’s only just two at the very end and unfortunately there’s always waste that comes from that because when you actually make the cut with the guide you have to cut off access to make sure that everything lines up so what we’ve done is because we don’t have any packaging for our products we use those ribbons to tie our products for retail and at the very end I’m going to just play this again so you can see after he lays down all the different colors he’s gonna go and put the marker on top you’re probably seeing about 50 plies or so of fabric it’s pretty thick and then the next slide I’ll show you how he cuts that out okay he has this really fun yardstick that he kind of like goes through and smacks it all down and then there’s these big weights that go across the markers so that the stacks are all flat without wrinkles so you can kind of see that’s what the table looks like when it extends out and he’s using basically a bandsaw to cut through it it’s a really cool thing and I feel like you hardly ever get to see behind the scenes of this process mostly because it’s out of respect to the clients that are out the factory but I feel like this is just really important for you all to see because it’s hard to conceptualize what the process really looks like if you don’t have an example so this is the only product we make that doesn’t have right angles or straight edges then it’s our cover’s collection they’re all bowls so what we’ve done is we fit squares and triangles into the negative space and those become party garlands probably notice I’m in the majority of these photos you wear a lot of hats when you work for a small business and you probably noticed in here there’s these tiny little slivers that RVs and they come out to be about this big in person that unfortunately we can’t do anything with so what we do is we upcycle it with a company called Phoenix fibers in Arizona what they do is they collect cotton and denim pre-consumer waste which is all the waste from production depth doesn’t that is not seen by the consumer crowd they take all of that and they upcycle it into different insulation material for walls automotives and a lot of prison mattresses as well so it’s super super cool so we’ve accounted for this entire cyclical system of our materials economy and we’re really trying to do is close the loop in this production cycle because it doesn’t have to be something that is linear and it starts with our design process right those two products that you saw the bull covers and flags they were designed at the same time the waste was never an aftermath for us to deal with when we’re in the initial prototyping stage we think about all the things that are going to go into what that product yields so we see the waste before actually is waste we try to do something with it ahead of time we also don’t use any hardware’s so no zippers no buttons which really helps elongate the life cycle um and also makes it easier for repair which is something that we’re trying to establish towards maybe this summer we’re gonna launch a series of workshops for people to come and have skills to be able to repair a lot of their items not just their applause stuff but home goods backpacks anything like that and we’re hoping to also launch an artist residency program so I’ll tell you more about that at the end so this is kind of an idea of how fabric bio degrees right now we’re using 100% organic cotton and with the right composting it can actually be gone in a week to five months which is really really cool and as you go down the list these are all-natural organic materials right linen comes from a flax wool comes from sheep bamboos self-explanatory so forms so these are the common products that we actually used to use in our clothing back in our grandparents generation so this is a really awesome resource from closed-loop economy and it basically goes through how organic fiber interacts with man-made fiber and so what you have over here are some of those fibers that I listed on the page before you have your proteins which is material that’s harvested from some kind of livestock and then you have the plant-based stuff up there which is you know your hemp jus flax cotton and then on the red side is all man-made materials so that’s anything from rayon polyester to nylon all these different things that basically are petroleum and oil based which is one of the largest polluting industries in the world so this is what polyester looks like on a chemical level when thermoplastic which means it can be heated up to be reshaped it’s hydrophobic which means it is not absorb any water it takes about two hundred years soozee compose okay so earlier before the lecture started I asked a few students in the front to share with me your fabric contents the people that I asked could you raise your hand and also share with well about this time okay 90% cotton okay mix blends um what about you right 100% polyester okay so I started asking working the factory every day how come we can’t get the garment clients who also share a factory to be able to upcycle a lot of their fabric well it’s because most of the fibers they use are mixed so you get a lot of the synthetics that are mixed with natural Cotton’s that usually could decompose but now all the sudden because it’s inter woven with something that is man-made you’ll never be able to separate it it’s like if you’re using red and blue to make purple once you get to purple you can’t go back to either of those colors right and it’s the same idea it’s woven into a thread which then is woven into the fiber which becomes the fabric for the clothing so there’s really no industrial process to separate a lot of this so that’s why a lot of this just ends up going to landfill because people don’t really have a system for properly separating it yet so I started asking well then where does it all go right because every single day we see bales and bales of fabric moving out it’s all from the pre consumer cuts from these garment industries and so in San Francisco our waste management system is called for ecology Recology is probably one of the most state-of-the-art waste management systems definitely in North America and what they’ve done is basically revolutionized the way that our city thinks about waste now I was really lucky to run into the PR manager there his name is Robert Reed and he has an impressive history in journalism and he’s been with ecology for 19 years and so I started asking all these questions right because I’m a rabbit hole person and I was like hey Robert I’m just wondering when you pick up this fabric what happens to it and you pretty much gave me the same answer he was like you know what I’m gonna tell you a smart person tries to recycle fabric a wise person avoids it altogether and so it was kind of a dead ended thing because he basically said you know we don’t how to figure it out because it’s a problem that keeps persisting and Recology does all kinds of collections not just on a residential level but they go around to commercial spaces like hotels restaurants all of which have a variety of different fabric ways that often has hardware so there’s buttons at first strings all kinds of things that you don’t really know what to deal with so right now at the moment I think he ensued it’s going to landfill I haven’t really confirmed it and that literature isn’t available so that’s my disclaimer but I ended up asking more questions you know what else are you guys doing with the waste and so he was able to tell me some really really incredible things about where ecology does every single day of ecology picks up 650 tons of recycling 80% of which is all fiber material which means it’s cardboard and paper that can be recycled back into new products so there is an industry that exists with taking waste and rikka modifying it and making it resources for a new product what Recology has revolutionized is 800 tons of compost a day which is 150 tons more than recycling which is 800 tons more that’s leaving landfills and going to a different cause and so composting is something that’s mandated by our city and every single house whether there is residential or commercial spaces is required to have cantos which is why they have such a great yield and asked him how did you get such a great number because this program was only launched within the last 10 years and he said the big part was we got city legislation on board after the mandate happened we just put out so much literature we gave people free bins resources to really understand it and then we have a purpose for people to actually compost for what Recology has done is they’re working with all the vineyards in Sonoma County to grow mustard as cover crops now what happens when you go through a typical harvest season is that you’re planting all these things that you want to be nutrient dense because a lot of those things are things we’re gonna put back at our own bodies so you put the best of the materials into the plant food the plant eats and then we eat the plant and so after harvest season the soil has to be completely dedicated of all those nutrients and you plant winter cover crops so that those nutrients can be resold into the ground so right now what Sonoma County is doing is they’re growing rows of mustard in between all the vineyards and mustard is a magic cover crop it absorbs so much co2 emissions that have said that it could probably help with 20% reduction in California submissions alone annually what happens as mustard roots can actually grow to be about six feet deep just taller than most of us and the deeper the roots the deeper that I can so that co2 which is great because plants love carbon dioxide it also pulls nitrogen back in and those two components are the most important for plant nutrients so a lot of that is the biomass which is the food source for these plants to really thrive but additionally the mustard is kind of a symbiotic thing with the vineyards because what happens is you get these soil-borne pests and they’re basically these worms called nematodes and nematodes basically end up eating the thing that you want to eat and so because mustard is so high in by finnegans it’s kind of like a spicy repugnant taste to these worms and the worms leave it alone so now you have a pest problem that is being handled without using any kind of herbicides or pesticides and you’re feeding your plants and you’re taking all of that resource that originally came from someone else’s waste which is incredible and California actually has vowed to be carbon neutral by 2045 and so there’s an immense amount of funding that’s going into motivating California agriculture to basically plant as many cover crops as they can to try to reduce co2 emissions this is a picture of my friend Scott he and I taught a permaculture class together at UC Santa Cruz and this is his farm this is the pictures from his first season he uses a compost from ecology and those are his chrysanthemum flowers as well as golden greens and those are really great cover crops for him going throughout this and these are a variety of Asian heritage vegetables he grows for Asian restaurants and markets in Marin County and this is slide ranch which is a wonderful educational farm that’s pretty close to Stinson Beach on Highway one so you get all this local waste that’s coming from one mystery being married and riku modified to help another industry and I think that’s really what auntie Leonard was getting down to you about unifying and seeing all the connections along the way and as designers we play a huge part in this because we’re the ones now putting things out into the world and we have the power to also redefine systems and how we make those products Recology system was designed by somebody so what I’m hoping you’ll do is maybe you can get together with the folks at your table and kind of go off of the information that I given you about how ecology works with compost and cover crops and think about what that would mean in Long Beach I found out earlier that Long Beach doesn’t have a mandated composting system but that the campus has been trying and so I want to use I want you guys to use the marker pads to just drop down some quick visuals with the facts that you learn and I can go back a few sheets but why should the Long Beach community care about composting yeah so take a few minutes talk to the people at your tables and I’ll go back to the mustards page so you can see so I don’t miss anyone up there okay cool so you guys can keep talking but I’m just gonna summarize a little bit of what I heard as I was popping around most of the berries that were identified were lack of education whether that’s you’re not really sure what can be composted and what’s not there’s some kind of discretion there and the second one was time and resource right Long Beach doesn’t have a composting pick up so a lot of times when you’re composting at home the questions come up so you where do you actually take it the smell the time it takes for it all to break down so these are all really good things to take into account too and what I collected in my data surveying is that this stuff has been designed into your ecology system and so what you guys all just helped me realize is coming from San Francisco we live in a bubble where our behavior has been trained to really understand composting as like a second impulse right it’s the same way that we don’t really think about separating and recycling anymore we’ve been doing it for so long that we don’t really have to stop and ask this question and that five-second delay makes a really big difference for whether you’re motivated to sort it or not so yeah that was definitely something that was super interesting just talking about composting and realizing like what compost material actually is what is the process of compost breakdown and then where does it go afterwards so what’s interesting is because I never realized I live in a bubble until I leave San Francisco because everyone in San Francisco is all trained on the same system right or college you’ve got it like watered down and so for us it’s like oh yeah cover crops this and that and the reason why I had you guys write all the sound is because Robert read a tree ecology they’re really trying to expand their branch I was telling Leslie earlier that they’ve gone up to San Rafael which is the county that’s directly north of the bay and they’ve gone down to the peninsula and San Mateo County as well and they’re really trying to launch some stuff down in Southern California and so I’m gonna collect all these sheets and hopefully feed it back to him and give him some feedback about what kinds of stuff needs to be done so thank you guys very much for participating and a study okay so I wanted to end it with kind of closing out this talk with questions that I want you guys to continue asking the best piece of advice I ever got when I was going through figuring out what I wanted to do with my efforts was what do I think about when I don’t have anything I have to think about and that’s a really interesting question because I don’t know if it’s automatic for us to track where our mind wanders but I’m posing this question because if you follow that you’ll really get to the core of what your true passions are and if you just keep asking questions and track and catalog those questions for yourself you’ll really understand what you want to move towards and that will really help for your design process and guide you to the stuff that you want to go what’s really important you guys are all really talented and you have so many resources more than people in the generation the island or the people above us had when we were your age and you’re the next generation of problem solvers and so along the way you’re going to be the touch point of all these systems that really need our help whether it’s through a product or for an actual systems design so try to write to yourself this is a fun study too so there was a study that was done on college students and the control group basically was asked to write a journal entry for 15 minutes a day for just seven days about what events happened external in the world so the weather was nice today and the news this happened I learned this in class that’s it and the variable group was asked to write all those things but then reflect on how those external factors made them feel internally so the weather was nice today so it lifted my mood cuz I’m happier when the Sun is out this happened in the news and it made me sad because it made me realize that this is the state of the world that were in so those two groups even though they’re talking about the same things one process is how those factors made them feel and then they tested how many times the students went to the Student Health Center over the course of a semester and they found significant decreases in the students that wrote about external matters and reflected internally about how and made them feel so this communicates that we’re able to process and have this phase of reappraisal which is thinking about something that we experienced and trying to recontextualize it we can really start to shape the way that we initially felt that I think it’s like if someone spilled coffee on me because they’re in a rush I get really upset because now I show up to a presentation I’m about to give and I’m covered in coffee but then later on you know I get over it change my clothes and I’m like that wasn’t a big deal I’m not mad anymore maybe that person was in a rush or whatever it was and we’ve learned to let it go and so why we’re not constantly mad right we’re we’re adjusting the way that we see the world and it’s really important to do that with writing when you do that you can really start to get to the core of your own behavioral pattern so that is what I leave you all with and if you guys have any questions is now a good time with me okay [Applause] guys don’t happening and okay hey oh we were looking on your company’s website and we notice a lot of the products that you sell are really expensive so how do you overcome the boundary of the cost mm-hmm yeah that’s a really good question so as she was mentioning our products are probably based in between $30 to 50 the highest price point we have is a hundred for the big market tote and that actually is a huge barrier we run into all the time people want to support the products that we have but the financial incentive is kind of hard and being in San Francisco it’s kind of a too affluent community that can afford some of those products but when you take it outside of that community again leaving the bubble that financial matter really becomes a barrier so what we’ve done is try our best to communicate the values in which we operate our design process by we can explain to people and get them to really understand this is the amount of time that goes into making this product this is the amount of money that goes into getting a resource that was harvested in the United States this is what happens when you actually make your products across the street from where you work in San Francisco and that is the true cost so our cogs are hired because we make all these choices and I think the best we can do is communicate the value of why we make those choices [Music] we just challenge keyboard top down I think personally and also because I’ve gathered some of the responses I think the best way would be from top down because the main barrier is you could have a compost but what do you do with it afterwards right if there is no waste management facility that’s actually coming through and helping you collect that waste it doesn’t really provide an incentive right it creates more labor for people which is not really a driver so I think that if Recology were to approach it or if I were to approach it on a personal level it would be trying to get the city on the same page you can actually participate in a lot of like local legislation groups and you can sign petitions I say you know we want this to be mandated if you get enough tips signatures that will get on a ballot people can vote on it and then things will change so that’s a really nice spot I’m up level that I think a lot of people overlook participating local politics is something that you’ll probably have the biggest effect on what directly touches you these prosthetics and also talk about the holding workshops regarding their parents building towards it because I feel like one time versions this guy you think it’s kind of like a business selling yeah it’s the ultimate Dulwich sort right we want people to buy less stuff and we want to make it really well so it lasts forever so yeah we make a pretty big challenge for ourselves because we’re constantly reaching out to new customers which you know you get across your values but then you figure out okay what are the other things that I need to address right there’s this concept called wicked problems and it’s basically a problem that has so many different facets that if you change one it’ll ultimately create a problem somewhere else and so it kind of is like a domino effect where you can’t kind of you can’t really fix the problem all at once unless you you know erase the whole thing and start over which isn’t really how the world works so yeah by choosing those as our values were then now focusing a lot of our energy on different kinds of campaigns community engagements new customers constantly [Music] using tools that create incense more ways but in a way too [Music] to fix your create this team a lot of sightings here even though you are like okay I want to go back to how you started that question which was 3d printing creates waste so if you’re creating a part that is a component for fixing another thing it’s an additive process also why 3d printing is awesome is it’s an additive process and most things like garment production or wood cutting it’s all reductive you start with something that’s finite and you reduce it to the dimension you actually want 3d printing is awesome because it’s the full opposite of that you build to what you need so you actually don’t really have a waste especially if you’re making that for something else did I get your question [Music] 3d prints yeah yeah if you guys are ever in New York cooper-hewitt has a wonderful exhibit I’m this entire there’s this really cool industries that’s taking off where they use repurposed materials like you can 3d print with algae yeah it’s really cool and I think adidas launched something recently where they take a lot of their old Souls and they’ll basically convert it into the thing the material whatever it is I don’t know what it’s called then it’s like it was plastic petroleum but then it gets converted something else but yeah I definitely think there’s a lot of people out there who are doing alternative material resourcing and that is a super cool thing to get into that’s probably the future yeah um none that I can name off the top of my head but algae fully compostable right that’s a biomaterial yeah there’s all kinds of things there’s people who extract silkworm enzymes and then they mix it with like moon jelly DNA and they can make like glow-in-the-dark material the 3d print from that it’s super cool [Applause]