Producing extra vigor with fewer CO2 emissions this advertising slogan by means of the manufacturer AVA-CO2 holds out the promise to clear up one of the pressing issues of our time. With a view to gain this purpose, the companyhas developed a science for the inexpensive use of hydrothermal carbonization. This technology makes it possible for the construction of coal from biogenic waste. The manufacturer has developed its first researchfacility in the Karlsruhe Rhine harbour. At present AVA-CO2 receives a cargo of malt spent grains biogenic residues from a brewery. To find out below which conditions the spent grains will also be changed into biocoal, a approach engineer analyzes the fabric composition. A sample is taken to be able to assess the moisture content material of the spent grains and the weight of the grains after drying. For this cause, some portion of the pattern is positioned into an aluminum bowl after which inserted right into a furnace. Within the furnace, the spent grainsare heated up except all moisture has been extracted. From the dry weight the engineer calculates how much coal he’ll be ready to provide from the spent grains.The method now continues external. First, the grain is placed on a scale in small portions. The burden of each and every component is recorded. Then the grain shipment is fed right into a pump. It’s full steam ahead for the pumps now, for the entire grain cargo is to be processed immediately. On this manner, the procedures can be increased and managed more quite simply, given that no extra materials are brought in the course of operation. Now 7 tonnes of malt spent grains are pumped into the primary of three vessels, the blending tank. Established on the dry weight of the grain, the engineers comprehend that the grain involves only one.5 tonnes of solid fabric. The remainder 5.5 tonnes are water. Now recycled water won from previous strategies and hot steam are delivered. As a result of the blending of the elements and the rising pressure within the tank the material is heated up and pumped into the 2nd vessel. The reactor tank is where the biomass, i.E. The strong fabric contained in the spent grains, is actually changed into coal. However how exactly does this occur? 1.4 tonnes of hot steam as good as gases generated as by-merchandise of the process motive the stress to upward push to 24 bar and the temperature to go up to 210 C.Underneath heat and temperature, water molecules are removed from the biomass. What remains is a carbon compound with only some bonded oxygen and hydrogen atoms: the coal. If the spent malt grains were burnt directly, this could be much less potent, in view that the carbon content material of coal is better in comparison with that of spent grains. Accordingly, coal reacts much more comfortably with oxygen and has a bigger heating value one might say that a refining process has taken place. From the 1.5 tonnes of dry subject biomass that had in the beginning been contained in the 7 tonnes of spent grains, 1 tonne of coal and half of a tonne of water have been generated.Therefore, AVA-CO2 has carried out inside no more than 5 hours what it takes nature thousands of years to obtain. As a result of the pressure in the reactor tank, the coal and the water are forced into the 0.33 vessel. The intent of this outlet buffer tank isto scale back temperature and stress and to organize the coal and the water for discharge from the tank. The remaining water can be therefore recycled and part of it is going to be used in the next procedure. When the coal and the water are discharged from the tank, they still have a temperature of about ninety C and need to be additional cooled down in a basin.The water-coal combo is then pumped from the accumulating basin to a filtering press. Right here each and every filter fabric is constant to a kind of hanger. Within the plant a gigantic quantity of such hangers are suspended in a row. For the period of filtering, the liquid is forced by means of the cloths below pressure. As a consequence, the water flows out of the filters on the facets and runs right into a gutter. A main improvement of robotically dewatering the coal is that there is no need to give further warmness energy. As a result of its hydrophobic, i.E. Water-repellent properties coal is chiefly convenient to filter. AVA-CO2 can eliminate 75 percent of the water by way of making use of this only mechanical approach, hence saving up to 60 percentage of vigor compared to the thermal drying of the biomass. On this filter press, the filters are moved one after the other through a moving gadget. The coal plates readily drop off and are accumulated in a container. In a subsequent step, an AVA-CO2 employee prepares the coal for transport.This additionally includes weighing the barrels. Moreover, the coal is treated with gaseous nitrogen to be able to restrict the spreading of microorganisms. Presently, AVA-CO2 is engaged in the production of biocoal from quite a lot of biomass residues for research purposes for research functions and is investigating how the approach water can be recycled in a extra fee-amazing manner and how the dewatering method and the calorific price of the coal in the method reactor will also be optimized. At reward, the warmth worth of coal made out of spent grains already quantities to 30 MJ/kg, which is better than that of lignite.As a consequence, it can replace fossil fuels and support to avoid wasting CO2 identical to carbon produced from digested sewage sludge. With a calorific price of best thirteen MJ/kg, nonetheless, sewage sludge is required in larger amounts. The essential curiosity here lies in taking away a waste product in a intelligent and accountable means. For sludge includes now not handiest micro organism and other microorganisms, but in addition heavy metals equivalent to for example zinc, which is why in Switzerland its use as a fertilizer in agriculture has been forbidden considering that 2006 an identical trends will also be determined in Germany. Consequently, the sludge is incinerated, which, nevertheless, outcome in a lack of phosphate, an principal plant nutrient, which is becoming increasingly scarce international. Thanks to a brand new technological know-how developed by using AVA-CO2 on the foundation of hydrothermal carbonization, as much as 80 percent of phosphate will also be recovered from the sewage sludge in an economically viable manner. Exchange of scene: the municipal sewage plant Winterthur, Switzerland. Sludge coal has just been delivered from Karlsruhe. The sole cause of the mono-incineration plant is to dewater and dispose of sludge. In the past, the sewage plant has used methane fuel within the combustion approach. With an on-site pilot plant, AVA-CO2 is now trying out to what extent the municipal utility would retailer gasoline and, as a result, vigor.In the crops of AVA-CO2 all tactics shall be computerized. In performing the combustion exams, nonetheless, handbook labor is still required: AVA-CO2 employees shovel the coal into buckets and dump it onto a screw conveyor. There the coal is mixed with the sludge and while conveyed to the fluidized bed incinerator. Within the incinerator, the sludge is kept burning by means of the coal – therefore replacing the methane gasoline. In future, the gasoline can be required for the initial spark handiest. As a result, it could be feasible to do away with sludge with out causing additional CO2 emissions by means of utilizing the coal produced by using AVA-CO2..